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问:医院污水的处理方法有哪些?

Q: what are the treatment methods of hospital sewage?

发布时间:2022-07-02 09:47:07 人气:91 点赞:0

  医院的污水,除一般生活污水外,还含有化学物质、放射性废水和病原体。因此,必须经过处理后才能排放,特别是肝炎等传染病病房排出来的污水,须经消毒后才可排放。无集中式污水处理设备的医院,对有传染性的粪便,必须单独消毒使其无害化。常用消毒剂有二氧化氯、漂白粉、液氯、次氯酸钠、臭氧。对含放射性同位素的污水,应按同位素处理要求处理。

  医院污水在处理过程中,沉淀的污泥含有大量的细菌、病毒和寄生虫卵,须经消毒(常用熟石灰消毒)或高温堆肥后方可用作肥料。医院各部门的功能、设施和人员组成情况不同,产生污水的主要部门和设施有:诊疗室、化验室、病房、洗衣房、X光照像洗印、动物房、同位素治疗诊断、手术室等排水。医院行政管理和医务人员排放的生活污水,食堂、单身宿舍、家属宿舍排水。不同部门科室产生的污水成分和水量各不相同,如重金属废水、含油废水、洗印废水、放射性废水等。而且不同性质医院产生的污水也有很大不同。医院污水较一般生活污水排放情况复杂。

医院污水的处理方法有哪些

  医院污水来源及成分复杂,含有病原性微生物、有毒、有害的物理化学污染物和放射性污染等,具有空间污染、急性传染和潜伏性传染等特征,不经有效处理会成为一条疫病扩散的重要途径和严重污染环境。因此,医院污水往往具有以下特点:

  医院污水的水质特点是含有大量的病原体──病菌、病毒和寄生虫卵。如结核病医院污水,每升可检出结核杆菌几十万至几百万个。医院污水还含有消毒剂、药剂、试剂等多种化学物质。利用放射性同位素医疗手段的医院的污水还含有放射性物质。医院污水的水量与医院的性质、规模及所在地区的气候等因素有关,按每张病床计一般为每天200~1000升。医院污水处理主要是消毒,即杀灭病原体。常用的方法是氯化消毒或用臭氧消毒(见水的消毒、废水氧化处理法)。医院排出的放射性废水常用贮存衰减法处理。医院常用的放射性同位素如131碘,32磷,198金,24钠等是半衰期较短的同位素,因此可以将放射性污水贮存于地下专用衰变水池内,贮存时间为10倍于半衰期,把放射性浓度降到容许排放的程度。如果放射性污水的浓度很低,水量很小,也可用稀释法处理。中国的《放射性防护规定》要求每一微居里放射性同位素达到容许排放浓度需稀释水量1.67米3。当放射性污水浓度很高,放射性的半衰期很长,不宜用贮存法和稀释法处理时,可用蒸发法、离子交换法或凝聚沉淀法进行分离浓缩处理(见放射性废水处理)。医院污水处理过程中排出的污泥按每张病床计,每天平均为0.7~1升,含水95%,含有污水中病原体总量的70~80%,必须进行消毒处理。消毒方法有加热消毒、化学药剂消毒、γ射线消毒等。加热消毒的热源通常为蒸汽、电能或生物能(高温堆肥),有的地区可以用太阳能。或者用焚烧法处理(见污泥焚烧)。化学药剂消毒可用漂白粉、石灰、氨水、液氯或苛性钠等。用漂白粉或液氯时,有效氯用量约为污泥量的2.5%。用碱性药剂时,污泥的pH值达到12后,保持半小时以上,效果**。γ射线消毒可用60钴或一些裂变产物的混合物作辐射源,辐射剂量为20~30万伦琴。用此法对污泥消毒不产生臭气,并可改善污泥的脱水和沉降性,但费用较高。因此医院污水处理往往要求做到以下几点:

  1. 全过程控制原则。对医院污水产生、处理、排放的全过程进行控制。

  2. 减量化原则。严格医院内部卫生安全管理体系,在污水和污物发生源处进行严格控制和分离,医院内生活污水与病区污水分别收集,即源头控制、清污分流。严禁将医院的污水和污物随意弃置排入下水道

  3. 就地处理原则。为防止医院污水输送过程中的污染与危害,在医院必须就地处理。

  4. 分类指导原则。根据医院性质、规模、污水排放去向和地区差异对医院污水处理进行分类指导。

  5. 达标与风险控制相结合原则。全面考虑综合性医院和传染病医院污水达标排放的基本要求,同时加强风险控制意识,从工艺技术、工程建设和监督管理等方面提高应对突发性事件的能力。

  6. 生态安全原则。有效去除污水中有毒有害物质,减少处理过程中消毒副产物产生和控制出水中过高余氯,保护生态环境安全。

  医院污水处理之曝气生物滤池法

  医院污水主要来自诊疗室,病房,化验室,手术室,洗衣房,行政管理部门以及食堂,宿舍等排放的污水,主要污染物为**污染物,病原微生物及病毒。医院污水现在只经格栅除渣及消毒后处理既排放,采用二氧化氯消毒剂,余氯和细菌学指标能达标,但**物未被去除。为了全面达标,医院增加了曝气生物滤池污水处理工艺处理污水。考虑到该医院污水处理厂占地有限以及水中含有一定量消毒剂的特点,决定采取负荷高,占地少,对进水**物浓度范围适应性钱的曝气生物滤池工艺。

  曝气生物滤池具有以下特点:

  (1)**负荷高,占地少

  (2)生物量大,活性高,抗冲击能力强

  (3)具有生物降解反应与过滤双重功能,不需二沉池

  (4)由于滤料的切割作用,氧利用率高

  (5)运行稳定可靠,管理方便医院污水处理之氯化法

  (1)次氯酸钠法。次氯酸钠是普通的化学试剂,起运输,储存和购买都比较方便。次氯酸钠溶于水生产次氯酸根离子,可用于消毒杀菌,但它不稳定,光照,受潮易于分解,消毒能力很弱。

  (2)液氯法。液氯在水中能迅速产生次氯酸根离子。该方法已广泛应用于医院的污水消毒。液氯中有效氯含量比次氯酸钠溶液高5-10倍,消毒能力强且价格便宜。由于氯气是一种强刺激性有毒气体,因此要用专用的存储设备进行存储。

  (3)二氧化氯法。 二氧化氯(ClO2)是一种强氧化剂,它在水中的溶解度是氯的5倍,其氧化能力是氯气的215倍左右。它可以杀灭一切微生物,同时有效破坏水中的微量**污染物,很好地氧化水中一些还原状态的金属离子。其**的优点在于与腐殖质及**物反应几乎不产生发散性**卤化物,不生成并抑制生成有致癌作用的三卤甲烷,也不与氨及氨基化合物反应,因此非常适合用于医院污水处理。

  医院污水处理不达标一直是危害环境的重要因素。经过有关部门长期调查研究显现医院污水处理不彻底主要有下列因素。

  1.分类废水所使用药剂为了减低成本都是有很强针对性。从而造成各分类废水处理良好,综合水还是处理不达标。

  2.为水质清澈和降低成本使用大量石灰。但是却产生大量污泥,往往废水处理成本中30%---40%是处理污泥所产生。

  3.来水pH值变化大,反应池pH控制不稳定。pH不稳定造成沉淀池浑浊。出水水质也跟着不稳定,时好时坏。

  4.水处理人员责任心不强,操作不够细心,不注重细节。比如:来水有问题,不及时停机进行应急处理。各种仪表、探头不经常校正清洗。配制药品浓度不按工艺要求配制,为了省事,私自把浓度提高。

  5.表面处理行业的产品进行表面处理前,必须先经过大量的前处理,这其中使用的除油粉里含有乳化剂,而大量的乳化剂不但影响COD的含量,而且影响沉淀池的矾花絮凝,成泥不理想,致使沉淀不好,大量悬浮物跟随上层清水流出沉淀池,在pH回调的时候重新溶解进水里,结果造成排放口重金属离子超标。

  医疗废水的处理方法

医疗废水处理的基本方法有三类:物理法、化学法和微生物法,目前医院更多采用的是化学方法,物理方法主要是是针对医院废水进行沉淀、分离、冷热处理等操作。化学方法在医院废水处理中应用更为广泛,目前常用的方法包括:氯化消毒法、氧化剂消毒法、辐射消毒等,微生物处理法作为当前科技附加值较高的方法,逐步受到了人们的青睐。 

  沉淀过滤法

  沉淀法是医疗废水物理处理的重要方面,主要原理是利用医疗废水中悬浮污水的密度和污染物不同,按照重力沉浮的原理,把医疗污水中的悬浮物分离出来。利用过滤介质截流污水中的悬浮物。过滤介质有钢条、筛网、砂布、塑料、微孔管等,常用的过滤设备有格栅、栅网、微滤机、砂滤机、真空滤机、压滤机等,把污水分离出去。

  离心分离方法

  在医院医疗废水处理中,含有悬浮污染物质的污水在高速旋转,由于悬浮颗粒(如乳化油)和污水受到的离心力大小不同而被分离的方法。常用的离心设备按离心力产生的方式可分为两种:由水流本身旋转产生离心力的为旋流分离器,由设备旋转同时也带动液体旋转产生离心力的为离心分离机。旋流分离器分为压力式和重力式两种。因它具有体积小、单位容积处理能力高的优点,近几十年来广泛用于轧钢污水处理及高浊度河水的预处理。离心机的种类很多,按分离因素分有常速离心机和高速离心机。化学处理方法氯化消毒法氯化消毒法是在我国应用*为广泛的一种方法。常见的有次氯酸钠法、液氯法和二氧化氯法等。次氯酸钠在医用上是比较普通的化学试剂,是一种有刺激性气味的淡黄色透明液体,可以较为方便地使用和存储,但是它具有不稳定性,易于分解,消毒能力弱,具有氧化性。该方法处理医疗废水主要是两种方式:一是在医疗废水中投放次氯酸钠或者次氯酸钙,费用低、简便易行,适用于医疗废水产生较少的卫生所或者乡镇医院。这些医院人数少、废水成分简单,但是由于手工添加药剂,很难准确掌握投放量。二是使用自动次氯酸钠发生器设备进行污水处理,依据废水种类和量进行自动投配药剂,处理效果比较稳定。这种方法成本相对较高,且对技术人员素质要求较高,适合于患者人数较多、医疗废水较多的大型综合性医院。其消毒原理:液氯在水中能迅速产生次氯酸根离子,化学性质活泼。液氯中有效氯的含量高,所以消毒能力强,广泛应用于医院的污水处理。由于氯气是一种强刺激性有毒气体,所以应该采用专门的存储设备。其消毒原理为:二氧化氯是一种强氧化剂,其溶于水后将产生次氯酸根离子和亚氯酸根离子,损害人体对碘的吸收,损害红细胞。二氧化氯是一种高效杀菌剂,自其作为污水处理消毒剂以来,在欧美国家应用较为广泛。二氧化氯发生器无论是在安装还是使用方面

  都具有很多优越性,二氧化氯必然成为医院医疗污水处理的有效产品之一。医疗废水使用二氧化氯进行消毒可以有效除去失活病毒、隐孢子虫等,且二氧化氯消毒不受PH值影响,不形成氯仿等**卤代物。二氧化氯还可以有效氧化铁、锰、硫酸物等许多**物,但又不与氨反应,也不会形成溴酸盐。具体联系污水宝或参见http://www.dowater.com更多相关技术文档。

  氧化剂消毒法

  臭氧也是一种高效的消毒剂,具有刺激性气味,且具有不稳定性。臭氧具有高的氧化还原电位,能够有效讲解**物,破坏分解细菌的细胞,并且*终杀死细胞。臭氧能够消灭生命力顽强的病毒、芽孢等微生物。经过臭氧处理后,除菌率高达99.985%-99.998%,亚硝酸盐类去除率为79.5%,色度的去除率为77%。臭氧杀菌彻底,杀菌快,且不受外界环境影响。但是臭氧消毒也有一定的局限性,那就是臭氧本身不稳定,容易在水中分解,而且臭氧消毒设备昂贵。

  辐射消毒法

  辐射消毒主要是指利用电离辐射杀灭致病微生物的能力对一次性医疗用品进行消毒。紫外线消毒是一种*经济方便的方法,也是一种物理消毒法,利用紫外线功能消灭病原微生物。紫外线在波长(280-200nm)的杀菌消毒效果**佳。紫外线消毒用于医疗废水处理的原理:利用紫外线光子的能量破坏水中的各种病毒和细菌的遗传物质DNA,破坏其DNA结构,达到消灭病菌的目的。该种医疗废水处理方法的优点是费用低、投资小、时间短。

  曝气生物滤池法

  医疗废水主要来自手术室、病房、洗衣房等,其主要的污染物为病毒、微生物及其**污染物。采用氯化法等消毒能够达标,但是不能有效去除**物。为了更好地控制污水,全面达标,医院还可以采用生物滤池污水处理方法,这是一种新型生物膜法污水处理工艺。曝气生物滤池具有以下特点:占地少、**负荷高;因滤料具有切割作用,所以氧利用率较高;具有生物降解反应和过滤双重功能;生物活性高、量大、抗冲击能力强;运行可靠、管理方便。

  微生物技术

  生物接触氧化法

  这种方法是介于生物滤池和活性污泥法之间的一种生物膜法。在接触生物氧化池内设有填料,在填料表面附着着以生物膜形式存在的微生物,部分微生物以絮状存在,利用这些生物膜和充分共赢的氧气对废水中的**物进行氧化分解,*终达到净化水质的效果。在可生化的条件下,该种方法具有高效节能、占地小、运行方便等特点。生物接触氧化法通常与传统消毒方法结合使用。如A/O二级强化生物接触氧化法-二氧化氯工艺等,在较大型医院的废水处理中,这些方法得到了广泛应用。

  膜生物反应器处理

  在医疗废水微生物处理中,膜生物反应器处理是一个非常常见的方法,膜生物反应器主要是把生物处理单元和膜分离单元结合起来的一种新型的水处理技术,在这个过程中,主要是用膜组件来代替传统的二沉池,这样能够实现固体和液体的有效分离,防止出现污泥膨胀、水质不稳定的情况。,膜生物反应器处理办法具有水处理效率高、防止二次污染、密封性强、占地少、成效快的特点,是当前医疗废水处理采用的主要方面。

以上内容由瑞柘环保小编摘录自百度百科,仅供各位访客学习参考!

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  Hospital effluents, in addition to general domestic effluents, contain chemicals, radioactive effluents, and pathogens. Therefore, it must be treated before discharge, especially the effluent discharged from infectious disease wards such as hepatitis, and should be sterilized before discharge. Hospitals without centralized wastewater treatment equipment, with infectious feces, must be individually sanitized to render them harmless. Common disinfectants are chlorine dioxide, bleach powder, liquid chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, and ozone. For effluents containing radioactive isotopes, they should be treated according to the requirements of isotope treatment.

  Hospital sewage during treatment, the precipitated sludge contains a large amount of bacterial, viral, and parasitic eggs, which should be sterilized (common slaked lime disinfection) or left behind by high-temperature composting to be used as fertilizer. The functions, facilities, and personnel composition of all departments in the hospital are different, and the main departments and facilities that generate sewage are: diagnosis and treatment rooms, chemical laboratories, wards, washing rooms, radiographic wash prints, animal rooms, isotope therapy diagnostics, operating rooms, and other drains. The domestic sewage discharged by hospital administration and medical staff, cafeteria, single quarters, family quarters. The composition and water volume of wastewater generated by different departmental departments are different, such as heavy metal wastewater, oily wastewater, wash printing wastewater, radioactive wastewater, and so on. And the sewage produced in hospitals of different nature is very different. The discharge situation of hospital sewage is more complicated than that of general domestic sewage.

  The source and composition of wastewater in hospitals are complex, containing pathogenic microorganisms, toxic, harmful physicochemical pollutants and radioactive pollution, which have the characteristics of space pollution, acute infection and latent infection, and without effective treatment can become an important route for the spread of an epidemic disease and severely polluted environments. Therefore, hospital sewage tends to have the following characteristics:

  The water quality of hospital effluents is characterized by the presence of a large number of pathogens - bacteria, viruses and parasite eggs. As TB hospital sewage, several hundred thousand to several million tuberculous bacilli can be detected per liter. Hospital effluents also contain many chemicals such as disinfectants, agents, and reagents. Effluents from hospitals utilizing radioisotope medical means also contain radioactive materials. The volume of sewage in a hospital is related to factors such as the nature, size of the hospital and the climate of the region in which it is housed, and generally ranges from 200 to 1000 l per bed per day. Hospital wastewater treatment is mainly disinfection, i.e. killing pathogens. Common methods are chlorination or disinfection with ozone (see disinfection of water, wastewater oxidative treatment method). Radioactive wastewater discharged from the hospital is commonly treated by the storage attenuation method. Commonly used radioisotopes in hospitals such as 131 iodine, 32 phosphorus, 198 gold, 24 sodium, etc. are isotopes with short half lives, so radioactive wastewater can be stored in dedicated underground decay tanks for a storage time of 10 times the half-life, lowering the radioactivity concentration to the extent that it is tolerated for discharge. If the concentration of radioactive wastewater is low and the amount of water is small, it can also be treated by dilution method. China's radiological protection regulations require that each micro Curie radioisotope reach the allowable emission concentration with a volume of diluted water of 1.67m 3. When the concentration of radioactive wastewater is very high and the half-life of radioactivity is so long that it is not easily treated by storage and dilution methods, it can be treated by evaporation, ion exchange, or coacervation precipitation (see radioactive wastewater treatment). The sludge drained during the wastewater treatment of a hospital is, according to each hospital bed, an average of 0.7-1 l per day, with 95% water content and 70-80% of the total amount of pathogens contained in the effluent, which must be treated with disinfection. Disinfection methods are heat and disinfect, chemical agents γ Ray disinfection et al. Heat sterilized heat sources are usually steam, electricity, or bioenergetics (high-temperature compost), and areas can be covered with solar energy. Or disposal by incineration (see sludge incineration). Chemical agent disinfection may be done using bleach powder, lime, ammonia, liquid chlorine or caustic soda, etc. The effective chlorine amount was about 2.5% of the sludge amount when bleaching powder or liquid chlorine. With basic agents, the pH of sludge reaches 12 and then remains more than half an hour with the best results. γ Radiographic disinfection may be used as a source of radiation with 60 cobalt or a mixture of some fission products at a radiation dose of 20-300 000 roentgenomes. Disinfection of sludge with this method does not produce stink gas and improves sludge dehydration and sedimentation, but at a higher cost. Therefore, hospital wastewater treatment often requires the following:

  Principles of full process control. The complete process of wastewater production, treatment, and discharge from hospitals is controlled.

  The principle of reduction. The internal hygiene and safety management system of the hospital should be strictly controlled and separated at the source of sewage and dirt generation, and the domestic sewage in the hospital should be collected separately from the effluent in the hospital area, that is, source control, and decontamination diversion. The ad libitum abandonment of effluents and dirt from the hospital into the sewer is strictly prohibited

  Principles of in situ processing. To prevent contamination and hazards during hospital effluent delivery, in situ treatment is necessary in hospitals.

  Classification guidelines. The classification of nosocomial wastewater treatment is guided by the nature, size, where the effluent is discharged, and regional differences.

  Compliance combined with risk control principles. Comprehensive consideration of the basic requirements of the effluent standard discharge of comprehensive hospitals and infectious disease hospitals, while strengthening the awareness of risk control, from process technology, engineering construction, and supervision and management, to improve the ability to respond to unexpected events.

  Principles of ecological safety. Effectively remove toxic and harmful substances from wastewater, reduce the production of disinfection byproducts in the treatment process and control the excessive remaining chlorine in the effluent, and protect the safety of the ecological environment.

  Aerated biofilter method for hospital wastewater treatment

  Hospital effluents mainly come from the effluents discharged from diagnosis and treatment rooms, wards, chemical and laboratory rooms, operating rooms, washing rooms, and administrative departments as well as cafeterias, quarters, etc., and the main contaminants are organic pollutants, pathogenic microorganisms and viruses. The hospital sewage is now only discharged by grid residue removal and disinfection and post-treatment, using chlorine dioxide disinfectant, chlorine residue and bacteriological indicators can be up to standard, but organic matter is not removed. In order to comprehensively meet the standard, the hospital has added an aerated biofilter wastewater treatment process to treat the sewage. Considering the limited footprint of the wastewater treatment plant in this hospital and the characteristic that water contains a certain amount of disinfectant, it was decided to adopt an Aerated Biofilter Process with high load, low footprint, and good adaptability to the organic concentration range of the influent.

  The aerated biofilter has the following characteristics:

  (1) High organic loading with little footprint

  (2) Large biomass, high activity and shock resistance

  (3) It has the dual function of biodegradation reaction and filtration without the requirement of a double sink cell

  (4) High oxygen utilization due to the cleavage of the filter

  (5) Operation stable and reliable, management convenient hospital wastewater treatment by the chlorination method

  (1) Sodium hypochlorite method. Sodium hypochlorite is a common chemical reagent and is more convenient to transport, store and purchase. Sodium hypochlorite is soluble in water to produce hypochlorite ions, which can be used for disinfection and sterilization, but it is unstable, light, moisture is easy to break down, and the disinfection ability is very weak.

  (2) Liquid chlorine method. Liquid chlorine in water can rapidly produce hypochlorite ions. This method has been widely used for wastewater disinfection in hospitals. The effective chlorine content in liquid chlorine is 5-10 times higher than that in sodium hypochlorite solution, and the disinfection capacity is strong and inexpensive. Since chlorine is a strong irritant toxic gas, it is to be stored with a dedicated storage facility.

  (3) Chlorine dioxide method. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a strong oxidant that is five times more soluble in water than chlorine, and its oxidizing capacity is about 215 times that of chlorine gas. It can kill all microorganisms while effectively destroying trace organic pollutants in water, and well oxidizes some metal ions in a reduced state in water. Its greatest advantage lies in the fact that reaction with humic substances and organics produces few divergent Organohalides, does not generate and inhibits the production of carcinogenic trihalomethanes, nor does it react with ammonia and amino compounds, thus making it very suitable for use in hospital wastewater treatment.

  The non compliance of hospital wastewater treatment has always been an important factor that endangers the environment. After a long-term survey research on relevant departments has revealed that the following factors mainly contribute to the incomplete wastewater treatment in hospitals.

  1. Triage the agents used in wastewater are all highly targeted in order to reduce costs. Thus, it causes the wastewater of each classification to be treated well, the comprehensive water or the treatment is not up to standard.

  2. Use large quantities of lime for water quality clarity and for cost reduction. But it produces a lot of sludge, often 30% of the cost of waste water treatment - 40% is generated from treating sludge.

  3. The pH value of the coming water varies greatly, and the pH control of the reaction pool is not stable. PH instability causes cloudy precipitate pools. The effluent water quality also follows the instability, time good and time bad.

  4. Water handlers are not very responsible, the operations are not attentive enough, and do not pay attention to the details. For example: the coming water has problems, and do not stop in time for emergency treatment. Various gauges, probes are not routinely corrected for washing. Formulation the drug product concentration is not formulated according to the process requirements, and it is private to raise the concentration.

  5. Products from the surface treatment industry must undergo extensive pre-treatment prior to surface treatment, which uses an emulsifier contained in the oil removal powder, and large amounts of emulsifiers not only affect the COD content, but also the alum flocculent of the precipitation tank, which is not ideal for sludge formation, resulting in poor precipitation, and a large amount of the suspension follows the upper clean water to flow out of the precipitation tank, redissolve the influent while pH callbacks, As a result, heavy metal ions in the discharge port are exceeded.

  Treatment methods for medical wastewater

  There are three categories of basic methods for the treatment of medical wastewater: physical, chemical and microbiological methods, at present, the more adopted methods in hospitals are chemical methods, and the physical methods mainly target hospital wastewater for precipitation, separation, cold and heat treatment and other operations. The chemical methods are more widely used in hospital wastewater treatment, and the current common methods include: chlorination disinfection method, oxidant disinfection method, radiation disinfection, etc., microbial treatment, as the current method of high added value to science and technology, has gradually been favored.

  Precipitation filtration method

  The precipitation method is an important aspect of the physical treatment of medical wastewater, and the main principle is to use different densities and contaminants of suspended wastewater in medical wastewater, in accordance with the principle of gravity sedimentation, to separate the suspended matter in medical wastewater. The filter medium is used to intercept the suspended material in sewage. There are steel bars, screen mesh, sand cloth, plastic, micro hole tube, etc., the commonly used filtration equipment is grid, gate, micro filter, sand filter, vacuum filter, press filter, etc., to separate the sewage.

  Centrifugation method

  In hospital medical wastewater treatment, wastewater containing suspended contaminated materials is rotated at high speed by a method that is separated due to different magnitudes of centrifugal force that the suspended particles (such as emulsified oil) and effluent are subjected to. The commonly used centrifugal equipment can be divided into two types according to the manner of centrifugal force generation: a vortex separator, which produces centrifugal force by rotation of the water flow itself, and a centrifugal separator, which produces centrifugal force by rotation of the equipment while also driving rotation of the liquid. Swirling separators are divided into two types, pressure and gravity. It has been widely used for wastewater treatment on rolled steel and pretreatment of river water with high turbidity in recent decades because of its advantages of small size and high treatment capacity per volume. There are many kinds of centrifuges, and there are regular speed centrifuges and high-speed centrifuges by separation factor. Chemical treatment methods chlorinated disinfection method chlorinated disinfection method is the most widely used method in our country. Common ones are sodium hypochlorite method, liquid chlorine method and chlorine dioxide method, etc. Sodium hypochlorite, which is relatively common chemical agent in medical use, is a light yellow transparent liquid with an pungent odor, which can be used and stored more conveniently, but it has instability, easy to decompose, weak disinfection ability, oxidation. This method is mainly used to treat medical wastewater in two ways: first, it is easy and convenient to dispose sodium hypochlorite or calcium hypochlorite in medical wastewater, which is less expensive and suitable for use in health institutes or township hospitals where medical wastewater is less produced. These hospitals have small numbers and simple waste water compositions, but it is difficult to accurately grasp the volume to be delivered because of the manual addition of pharmaceutics. The second is to use automatic sodium hypochlorite generator equipment for wastewater treatment, according to the waste water type and amount for automatic dosing agents, and the treatment effect is relatively stable. This method is relatively costly and highly demanding in technical staff quality, and it is suitable for large comprehensive hospitals with a larger number of patients and more medical wastewater. Its principle of disinfection: liquid chlorine in water can rapidly produce hypochlorite ions, and the chemical nature is active. The content of available chlorine in liquid chlorine is high, so the disinfection ability is strong, and it is widely used in the wastewater treatment of hospitals. Since chlorine is a strong irritant toxic gas, specialized storage equipment should be employed. Its principle of disinfection is: chlorine dioxide is a strong oxidant, which, when dissolved in water, will produce hypochlorite ions and chlorite ions, damage the body's absorption of iodine, and damage red blood cells. Chlorine dioxide is a highly effective fungicide that has been widely used in European and American countries since its application as a disinfectant for wastewater treatment. Chlorine dioxide generator, both in terms of installation and use

  All have a lot of superiority, chlorine dioxide is bound to be one of the effective products for hospital medical wastewater treatment. Disinfection of medical wastewater using chlorine dioxide can effectively remove inactivated viruses, Cryptosporidium, etc., and chlorine dioxide disinfection is not affected by pH value and does not form organic halides such as chloroform. Chlorine dioxide can also effectively oxidize iron, manganese, sulfuric acid and many other organics, but again does not react with ammonia and does not form bromate. Contact the sewage treasure specifically or see http://www.dowater.com More relevant technical documents.

  Oxidant disinfection method

  Ozone is also a highly effective disinfectant, with an irritating odor, and it is unstable. Ozone has a high redox potential and is able to effectively explain organics, destroy cells that break down bacteria, and eventually kill cells. Ozone can eliminate microbes such as lifethreatening viruses and spores. After ozone treatment, the bacteria removal rate was up to 99.985% - 99.998%, the nitrite removal rate was 79.5%, and the removal rate of colority was 77%. Ozone sterilization is thorough and fast, and it is not affected by the external environment. But ozone disinfection also has some limitations, that is, ozone itself is unstable, can easily decompose in water, and ozone disinfection equipment is expensive.

  Radiation disinfection method

  Radiation disinfection mainly refers to the disinfection of disposable medical supplies using the ability of ionizing radiation to kill pathogenic microorganisms. Ultraviolet disinfection is one of the most economical and convenient methods, as well as a physical disinfection method, which uses the function of ultraviolet light to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms. The bactericidal disinfection effect of ultraviolet light at the wavelength (280-200 nm) was the best. The principle of ultraviolet disinfection for medical wastewater treatment: using the energy of ultraviolet photons to destroy the genetic material DNA of various viruses and bacteria in water, damage its DNA structure, and achieve the purpose of eliminating bacteria. The advantages of this medical wastewater treatment method are low cost, small investment, and short time.

  Aerated biofilter method

  Medical wastewater mainly comes from operating rooms, wards, washing rooms, etc., and its main contaminants are viruses, microorganisms and their organic contaminants. Disinfection such as using the chlorination method can be up to standard, but cannot effectively remove organic matter. In order to better control the sewage, and comprehensively to be up to standard, hospitals can also apply biofilter wastewater treatment methods, which is a novel biofilm based wastewater treatment process. Aerated biofilters have the following characteristics: less footprint and high organic loading; Because the filters have a cutting effect, the oxygen utilization is higher; Has a dual function of biodegradation reaction and filtration; High biological activity, large quantity and shock resistance; Run reliable and easy to manage.

  Microbiol technol

  Biological contact oxidation method

  This method is a biofilm process intermediate between biofilters and activated sludge method. There is a filler inside the contact biological oxidation tank, to which the surface of the filler is attached microorganisms existing in the form of biofilms and some microorganisms existing in flocs, to use these biofilms and sufficiently win-win oxygen for the oxidative decomposition of organic matter in wastewater, and finally to achieve the effect of purifying water quality. Under biochemical conditions, the proposed method is efficient and energy-saving, small footprint, and convenient for operation. Biological contact oxidation methods are usually compared with conventional eliminationBiological contact oxidation methods are often used in combination with traditional disinfection methods. Such as the A / O secondary intensive biological contact oxidation process chlorine dioxide process and so on, these methods have been widely used in wastewater treatment in larger hospitals.

  Membrane bioreactor treatment

  In medical wastewater microbial treatment, membrane bioreactor treatment is a very common method, membrane bioreactor is mainly a novel water treatment technology that combines a biological treatment unit and a membrane separation unit, in this process, mainly membrane components are used to replace the traditional double sediment tank, which can achieve effective separation of solids and liquids and prevent the occurrence of sludge expansion, water quality instability., With the characteristics of high efficiency of water treatment, prevention of secondary pollution, strong sealing, less footprint, and rapid achievement, the membrane bioreactor treatment approach is the main aspect adopted for the current medical wastewater treatment.

  The above contents are compiled by the environment-friendly compendium of Ruize from Lanzhou Encyclopedia for various visitors to learn from!

  The Ruize environmental protection to undertake various hospital wastewater treatment engineering! Our company is the source manufacturer of stroke machine equipment for wastewater treatment engineering, and there have been more than 120 cases of wastewater treatment engineering undertaken by the company since its establishment till now! To learn more about the hospital wastewater treatment project scheme with the quote, please call: 400-155-8689!


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