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工业污水是什么,处理工艺与流程有哪些?

What is industrial sewage, and what are the treatment processes and processes?

发布时间:2022-07-01 15:23:54 人气:352 点赞:0

  工业污水(industrial wastewater )包括生产废水和生产污水,是指工业生产过程中产生的废水和废液,其中含有随水流失的工业生产用料、中间产物、副产品以及生产过程中产生的污染物。

  工业污水处理的基本原则

  1、优先选用无毒生产工艺代替或改革落后生产工艺,尽可能在生产过程中杜绝或减少有毒有害废水的产生。

  2、在使用有毒原料以及产生有毒中间产物和产品过程中,应严格操作、监督,消除滴漏,减少流失,尽可能采用合理流程和设备。

  3、含有剧毒物质废水,如含有一些重金属、放射性物质、高浓度酚、氰废水应与其它废水分流,以便处理和回收有用物质。

  4、流量较大而污染较轻的废水,应经适当处理循环使用,不宜排入下水道,以免增加城市下水道和城市污水处理负荷。

  5、类似城市污水的**废水,如食品加工废水、制糖废水、造纸废水,可排入城市污水系统进行处理。

  6、一些可以生物降解的有毒废水,如酚、氰废水,应先经处理后,按允许排放标准排入城市下水道,再进一步生化处理。

  7、含有难以生物降解的有毒废水,应单独处理,不应排入城市下水道。工业废水处理的发展趋势是把废水和污染物作为有用资源回收利用或实行闭路循环。

  1、工业废水直接流入渠道、江河、湖泊污染地表水,如果毒性较大会导致水生动植物的死亡甚至绝迹。

  2、工业废水还可能渗透到地下水,污染地下水,进而污染农作物。

  3、如果周边居民采用被污染的地表水或地下水作为生活用水,会危害身体健康,重者死亡。

  4、工业废水渗入土壤,造成土壤污染。影响植物和土壤中微生物的生长。

  5、有些工业废水还带有难闻的恶臭,污染空气。

  6、工业废水中的有毒有害物质会被动植物的摄食和吸收作用残留在体内,而后通过食物链到达人体内,对人体造成危害。工业废水对环境的破坏是相当大的,20世纪的“八大公害事件”中的“水俣事件”和“富山事件”就是由于工业废水污染造成的。

  污水处理按照其作用可分为物理法、生物法和化学法三种。

  1、物理法:主要利用物理作用分离污水中的非溶解性物质,在处理过程中不改变化学性质。常用的有重力分离、离心分离、反渗透、气浮等。物理法处理构筑物较简单、经济,用于村镇水体容量大、自净能力强、污水处理程度要求不高的情况。

  2、生物法:利用微生物的新陈代谢功能,将污水中呈溶解或胶体状态的**物分解氧化为稳定的无机物质,使污水得到净化。常用的有活性污泥法和生物膜法。生物法处理程度比物理法要高。

  3、化学法:是利用化学反应作用来处理或回收污水的溶解物质或胶体物质的方法。常用的有混凝法、中和法、氧化还原法、离子交换法等。化学处理法处理效果好、费用高,多用作生化处理后的出水,作进一步的处理,提高出水水质。污水处理按照处理程度来分可分为一级处理、二级处理和三级处理。一级处理主要是去除污水中呈悬浮状态的固体物质,常用物理法。一级处理后的废水BOD去除率只有20%,仍不宜排放,还须进行二级处理。二级处理的主要任务是大幅度去除污水中呈胶体和溶解状态的**物,BOD去除率为80%~90%。一般经过二级处理的污水就可以达到排放标准,常用生物膜处理法。三级处理的目的是进一步去除某种特殊的污染物质,如除氟、除磷等,属于深度处理,常用化学法。污水工艺流程选型要求:对现有一级处理工艺进行加强处理效果的改造  改造应根据实际情况,充分利用现有处理设施,对现有医院中应用较多的化粪池、接触池在结构或运行方式上进行改造,必要时增设部分设施,尽可能地提高处理效果,以达到医院污水处理的排放标准。

  一种处理工业污水的方法,属于污水处理技术领域。其是将污水引往集水池,对集水池末尾一格调节pH,用一级溶气水泵**到一级压力溶气罐,同时吸入空气和聚凝脱色剂,将在一级压力溶气罐内的一级饱和溶气水骤然释放到一级气浮池形成一级处理水;一级处理水溢入缓冲池,再在控制pH用二级溶气水泵将一级处理水**至二级压力溶气罐内,同时吸入空气和聚凝脱色剂,将二级压力溶气罐内的二级饱和溶气水骤然释放到二级气浮池形成二级处理水并自溢至沉淀池沉淀后排放;一、二级气浮池中的浮泥入浮泥池,压滤成滤饼,滤液回引至集水池。该方法处理的工业污水的CODcr、脱色率、SS、BOD5的去除率分别为80~90%、95%、90%以上、75-80%,符合GB8978-1996一级水排放标准。沼气发电是集环保和节能于一体的能源综合利用新技术。它利用工业污水经厌氧发酵处理产生的沼气,驱动沼气发电机组发电,并可充分利用发电机组的余热用于沼气生产,使综合热效率达 80 %左右,大大高于一般 30~40% 的发电效率,用户的经济效益显著是处理工业污水的好方法。

  1、技术概述:微电解技术是处理高浓度**废水的一种理想工艺,又称内电解法。它是在不通电的情况下,利用填充在废水中的微电解材料自身产生1.2V电位差对废水进行电解处理,以达到降解**污染物的目的。当系统通水后,设备内会形成无数的微电池系统,在其作用空间构成一个电场。在处理过程中产生的新生态[H] 、Fe2 + 等能与废水中的许多组分发生氧化还原反应,比如能破坏有色废水中的有色物质的发色基团或助色基团,甚至断链,达到降解脱色的作用;生成的Fe2 + 进一步氧化成Fe3 +,它们的水合物具有较强的吸附- 絮凝活性,特别是在加碱调pH 值后生成氢氧化亚铁和氢氧化铁胶体絮凝剂,它们的吸附能力远远高于一般药剂水解得到的氢氧化铁胶体,能大量吸附水中分散的微小颗粒,金属粒子及**大分子。其工作原理基于电化学、氧化- 还原、物理吸附以及絮凝沉淀的共同作用对废水进行处理。该法具有适用范围广、处理效果好、成本低廉、操作维护方便,不需消耗电力资源等优点。该工艺用于难降解高浓度废水的处理可大幅度地降低COD和色度,提高废水的可生化性,同时可对氨氮的脱除具有很好的效果。传统上微电解工艺所采用的微电解材料一般为铁屑和木炭,使用前要加酸碱活化,使用的过程中很容易钝化板结,又因为铁与炭是物理接触,之间很容易形成隔离层使微电解不能继续进行而失去作用,这导致了频繁地更换微电解材料,不但工作量大成本高还影响废水的处理效果和效率。另外,传统微电解材料表面积太小也使得废水处理需要很长的时间,增加了吨水投资成本,这都严重影响了微电解工艺的利用和推广。

  2、反应公式:阳极:Fe - 2e →Fe2+ E(Fe / Fe2+)=0.44V阴极:2H﹢ + 2e →H2 E(H﹢/ H2)=0.00V当有氧存在时,阴极反应如下:O2 + 4H﹢ + 4e → 2H2O E (O2)=1.23VO2 + 2H2O + 4e → 4OH﹣ E(O2/OH﹣)=0.41V3、技术特点⑴ 反应速率快,一般工业废水只需要半小时至数小时;⑵ 作用**污染物质范围广,如:含有偶氟、碳双键、硝基、卤代基结构的难除降解**物质等都有很好的降解效果;

  ⑶ 工艺流程简单、使用寿命长、投资费用少、操作维护方便、运行成本低、处理效果稳定。处理过程中只消耗少量的微电解反应剂。微电解剂只需定期添加无需更换,添加也无需进行活化直接投入即可;

  ⑷ 废水经微电解处理后会在水中形成原生态的亚铁或铁离子,具有比普通混凝剂更好的混凝作用,无需再加铁盐等混凝剂,COD去除率高,并且不会对水造成二次污染;

  ⑸ 具有良好的混凝效果,色度、COD去除率高,同量可在很大程度上提高废水的可生化性;⑹ 该方法可以达到化学沉淀除磷的效果,还可以通过还原除重金属;

  ⑺ 对已建成未达标的高浓度**废水处理工程,用该技术作为已建工程废水的预处理,在降解COD的同时提高废水的可生化性,可确保废水处理后稳定达标排放。也可对生化后废水进很行微电解或微电解联合生物滤床的工艺进行深度处理;⑻ 该技术各单元可作为单独处理方法使用,又可作为生物处理的前处理工艺,利于污泥的沉降和生物挂膜。

  4、适用废水种类本技术特别针对**物浓度大、高毒性、高色度、难生化废水的处理,可大幅度地降低废水的色度和COD,提高B/C比值即提高废水的可生化性;可广泛应用于印染、化工、电镀、制浆造纸、制药、洗毛、农药、酒精等各类工业废水的处理及处理水回用工程。⑴ 染料、印染废水;焦化废水;石油化工废水;------上述废水在脱色的同时,处理水中的BOD/COD值显著提高。

  ⑵ 石油废水;皮革废水;造纸废水、木材加工废水;------上述废水处理水后的BOD/COD值大幅度提高。

  ⑶电镀废水;印刷废水;采矿废水;其他含有重金属的废水;------可以从上述废水中去除重金属。

  ⑷ **磷农业废水;**氯农业废水;------大大提高上述废水的可生化性,且可除磷,除硫化物。

  以上内容来源于百度百科!仅供各位客户学习参考!

  上海瑞柘环保承接各位污水处理曝气设备安装工程!详情请致电:400-155-8689

  Industrial wastewater includes production wastewater and production wastewater, which refers to the wastewater and waste liquid generated in the process of industrial production, including industrial production materials, intermediates, by-products and pollutants generated in the production process.

  Basic principles of industrial sewage treatment

  1. Give priority to non-toxic production processes to replace or reform backward production processes, and try to eliminate or reduce the generation of toxic and harmful wastewater in the production process.

  2. In the process of using toxic raw materials and producing toxic intermediates and products, strict operation and supervision should be carried out to eliminate dripping and leakage, reduce loss, and adopt reasonable processes and equipment as far as possible.

  3. Wastewater containing highly toxic substances, such as some heavy metals, radioactive substances, high concentration phenol and cyanogen, should be separated from other wastewater in order to treat and recover useful substances.

  4. Wastewater with large flow and light pollution should be properly treated and recycled, and should not be discharged into sewers, so as not to increase the load of urban sewers and urban sewage treatment.

  5. Organic wastewater similar to urban sewage, such as food processing wastewater, sugar making wastewater and papermaking wastewater, can be discharged into the urban sewage system for treatment.

  6. Some toxic wastewater that can be biodegraded, such as phenol and cyanogen wastewater, should be treated first, and then discharged into urban sewers according to the allowable discharge standards, and then further biochemical treatment.

  7. Toxic wastewater that is difficult to biodegrade should be treated separately and should not be discharged into urban sewers. The development trend of industrial wastewater treatment is to recycle wastewater and pollutants as useful resources or implement closed-circuit circulation.

  1. Industrial wastewater directly flows into channels, rivers and lakes to pollute surface water. If it is highly toxic, it will lead to the death or even extinction of aquatic animals and plants.

  2. Industrial wastewater may also permeate into groundwater, pollute groundwater, and then pollute crops.

  3. If the surrounding residents use the polluted surface water or groundwater as domestic water, it will endanger their health and even cause death.

  4. Industrial wastewater seeps into the soil, causing soil pollution. Affect the growth of microorganisms in plants and soil.

  5. Some industrial wastewater also has an unpleasant odor, polluting the air.

  6. Toxic and harmful substances in industrial wastewater will remain in the body due to the ingestion and absorption of passive plants, and then reach the human body through the food chain, causing harm to the human body. The damage of industrial wastewater to the environment is considerable. Among the "eight public hazards events" in the 20th century, "Minamata event" and "Toyama event" are caused by industrial wastewater pollution.

  According to its function, sewage treatment can be divided into physical method, biological method and chemical method.

  1. Physical method: it mainly uses physical action to separate insoluble substances in sewage, and does not change chemical properties during treatment. Commonly used are gravity separation, centrifugal separation, reverse osmosis, air flotation, etc. Physical treatment of structures is relatively simple and economical. It is used in villages and towns with large water capacity, strong self purification capacity and low requirements for sewage treatment.

  2. Biological method: using the metabolic function of microorganisms, decompose and oxidize the dissolved or colloidal organic matter in the sewage into stable inorganic substances, so that the sewage can be purified. Activated sludge process and biofilm process are commonly used. The treatment degree of biological method is higher than that of physical method.

  3. Chemical method: it is a method that uses chemical reaction to treat or recover dissolved substances or colloidal substances in sewage. Commonly used are coagulation method, Zhonghe method, oxidation-reduction method, ion exchange method, etc. The chemical treatment method has good treatment effect and high cost. It is mostly used as the effluent after biochemical treatment for further treatment to improve the effluent quality. Sewage treatment can be divided into primary treatment, secondary treatment and tertiary treatment according to the degree of treatment. The primary treatment is mainly to remove the suspended solid substances in the sewage, which is commonly used by physical methods. The BOD removal rate of wastewater after primary treatment is only 20%, which is still not suitable for discharge, and secondary treatment must be carried out. The main task of the secondary treatment is to greatly remove the colloidal and dissolved organic matter in the sewage, and the BOD removal rate is 80% - 90%. Generally, the sewage after secondary treatment can meet the discharge standard, and biofilm treatment is commonly used. The purpose of tertiary treatment is to further remove some special pollutants, such as fluoride and phosphorus removal. It belongs to advanced treatment, and chemical methods are commonly used. Requirements for sewage process selection: the existing primary treatment process should be transformed to strengthen the treatment effect. According to the actual situation, the existing treatment facilities should be fully used to transform the structure or operation mode of septic tanks and contact tanks that are widely used in existing hospitals. When necessary, some facilities should be added to improve the treatment effect as much as possible, so as to meet the discharge standard of hospital sewage treatment.

  A method for treating industrial sewage belongs to the technical field of sewage treatment. It is to lead the sewage to the water collecting tank, adjust the pH of a grid at the end of the water collecting tank, lift it to the primary pressure air dissolving tank with the primary dissolved air pump, inhale air and coagulant decolorizer at the same time, and suddenly release the primary saturated dissolved air water in the primary pressure air dissolving tank to the primary air flotation tank to form the primary treated water; The primary treated water overflows into the buffer tank, and then when the pH is controlled, use the secondary dissolved air pump to lift the primary treated water into the secondary pressure dissolved air tank, at the same time, inhale air and coagulant decolorizer, and suddenly release the secondary saturated dissolved air water in the secondary pressure dissolved air tank to the secondary air flotation tank to form the secondary treated water, which overflows to the sedimentation tank and is discharged after sedimentation; 1、 The floating mud in the secondary air flotation tank enters the floating mud tank, is pressed and filtered into a filter cake, and the filtrate is led back to the sump. The removal rates of CODCr, decolorization rate, SS and BOD5 of the industrial sewage treated by this method are 80 ~ 90%, 95%, more than 90% and 75-80% respectively, which meet the grade I water discharge standard of GB8978-1996. Biogas power generation is a new energy comprehensive utilization technology integrating environmental protection and energy conservation. It uses the biogas produced by the anaerobic fermentation of industrial sewage to drive the biogas generator set to generate electricity, and can make full use of the waste heat of the generator set for biogas production, so that the comprehensive thermal efficiency is about 80%, which is much higher than the general power generation efficiency of 30~40%. The economic benefits of users are significant. It is a good method to treat industrial sewage.

  1. Technology Overview: micro electrolysis technology is an ideal process for treating high concentration organic wastewater, also known as internal electrolysis. It uses the micro electrolysis material filled in the wastewater to produce 1.2V potential difference to electrolyze the wastewater without electricity, so as to achieve the purpose of degrading organic pollutants. When the system is filled with water, countless micro battery systems will be formed in the equipment, forming an electric field in its action space. The new ecology [h] and Fe2 + produced in the treatment process can have redox reactions with many components in the wastewater, such as destroying the chromogenic group or chromophore group of the colored substances in the colored wastewater, or even breaking the chain, so as to achieve the role of degradation and decolorization; The generated Fe2 + is further oxidized to Fe3 +, and their hydrate has strong adsorption flocculation activity. Especially, ferrous hydroxide and ferric hydroxide colloidal flocculants are generated after adding alkali to adjust the pH value. Their adsorption capacity is much higher than that of ferric hydroxide gel obtained by hydrolysis of general agents, and can adsorb a large number of small particles, metal particles and organic macromolecules dispersed in water. Its working principle is based on the combined action of electrochemistry, oxidation-reduction, physical adsorption and flocculation sedimentation to treat wastewater. This method has the advantages of wide application range, good treatment effect, low cost, convenient operation and maintenance, and no need to consume power resources. The process used in the treatment of refractory high concentration wastewater can greatly reduce COD and chromaticity, improve the biodegradability of wastewater, and have a good effect on the removal of ammonia nitrogen. Traditionally, the micro electrolysis materials used in the micro electrolysis process are generally iron filings and charcoal, which should be activated by acid and alkali before use. It is easy to passivate and harden in the process of use. Because iron and carbon are in physical contact, it is easy to form an isolation layer between them, so that the micro electrolysis cannot continue and lose its function. This leads to the frequent replacement of micro electrolysis materials, which not only has a large workload and high cost, but also affects the treatment effect and efficiency of wastewater. In addition, the small surface area of traditional micro electrolysis materials also makes wastewater treatment take a long time, increasing the investment cost per ton of water, which seriously affects the utilization and promotion of micro electrolysis process.

  2. Reaction formula: anode: Fe - 2e → Fe2 + e (Fe / fe2+) =0.44v cathode: 2h + + 2e → H2 e (H + / H2) =0.00v when there is oxygen, the cathode reaction is as follows: O2 + 4H + + 4E → 2H2O e (O2) =1.23vo2 + 2H2O + 4E → 4OH - E (o2/oh -) =0.41v3, technical features ⑴ the reaction rate is fast, and it only takes half an hour to several hours for general industrial wastewater; ⑵ it has a wide range of organic pollutants, such as refractory organic substances containing even fluorine, carbon double bond, nitro, halogenated group structure, etc., which have good degradation effects;

  ⑶ simple process flow, long service life, low investment cost, convenient operation and maintenance, low operation cost and stable treatment effect. Only a small amount of micro electrolysis reagent is consumed in the treatment process. The micro electrolysis agent only needs to be added regularly without replacement, and the addition does not need to be activated directly;

  (4) after micro electrolysis treatment, the wastewater will form original ferrous or iron ions in the water, which has better coagulation effect than ordinary coagulants. There is no need to add coagulants such as iron salt. The removal rate of COD is high, and it will not cause secondary pollution to the water;

  (5) it has good coagulation effect, high removal rate of chromaticity and COD, and the same amount can greatly improve the biodegradability of wastewater; (6) this method can achieve the effect of phosphorus removal by chemical precipitation, and can also remove heavy metals by reduction;

  (7) for the high concentration organic wastewater treatment project that has been built but not up to the standard, this technology is used as the pretreatment of the wastewater of the built project, which can degrade COD and improve the biodegradability of the wastewater at the same time, so as to ensure the stable and up to standard discharge of the wastewater after treatment. It can also carry out advanced treatment of biochemical wastewater by micro electrolysis or micro electrolysis combined with Biofilter Process; (8) each unit of this technology can be used as a separate treatment method and as a pretreatment process of biological treatment, which is conducive to sludge sedimentation and biofilm.

  4. Applicable to the type of wastewater. This technology is especially aimed at the treatment of wastewater with high concentration of organic matter, high toxicity, high chroma and difficult biochemistry, which can greatly reduce the chroma and COD of wastewater, and improve the b/c ratio, that is, improve the biodegradability of wastewater; It can be widely used in printing and dyeing, chemical industry, electroplating, pulp and paper, pharmaceutical, wool washing, pesticides, alcohol and other industrial wastewater treatment and treated water reuse projects. ⑴ dye and printing and dyeing wastewater; Coking wastewater; Petrochemical wastewater------ While the above wastewater is decolorized, the bod/cod value of the treated water is significantly improved.

  (2) petroleum wastewater; Leather wastewater; Papermaking wastewater and wood processing wastewater------ The bod/cod value of the treated water of the above wastewater is greatly increased.

  (3) electroplating wastewater; Printing wastewater; Mining wastewater; Other wastewater containing heavy metals------ Heavy metals can be removed from the above wastewater.

  (4) organic phosphorus agricultural wastewater; Organochlorine agricultural wastewater------ The biodegradability of the above wastewater is greatly improved, and phosphorus and sulfide can be removed.

  The above content comes from Baidu Encyclopedia! Only for your customers to learn reference!

  Shanghai Ruizhe environmental protection undertakes the installation project of sewage treatment aeration equipment! For details, please call: 400-155-8689


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